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Annex 2: Applications of biosignal

The use of biosignals is increasing every day. Some of its applications are:

Accurate diagnosis of disorders and diseases

Biosignals can be used to diagnose various mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, memory disorders, autism, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)[11][13][15]. as well as physical conditions such as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal problems[19][26]. They made it possible for us to become aware of diseases such as Alzheimer’s years before they were diagnosed [28][25]. By interpreting biosignals predicting a heart attack or a stroke is possible, from a few days to a few hours before they happen [19][26].

Discovering the appropriate type and dose of medication

More than 10% of people around the world have mental health problems. A patient may have to change the type and dose of their medication for a long time until the doctor finds out which medication is the most suitable and effective. Based on the information obtained from cardiac and brain biosignals, the best medication and dosage for the treatment of mental problems could be recognized in a shorter time [7][22] and the patient can benefit more from their medication process [6][32].

Neuro-education

Many people have problems in their learning process (education or skills). They may get tired and bored quickly or may not be able to learn well. The combination of biosignal findings with educational techniques can be used to make changes in the teaching of mathematics, art, science and curriculum development to make the learning environment more attractive and efficient for individuals [14][16][20].

Neuro-marketing

Neuromarketing is a method that examines biosignals to better identify and understand how decisions are made in the consumer’s brain. The primary assumption in neuromarketing is that the process of decision making is not logical, but this process is formed in the depths of the brain and is based on a combination of thoughts and feelings. The most important goal of neuromarketing is to examine the emotional and perceptual reactions of the brain while making different choices. The goal of neuromarketing is to better convey marketing messages to others and to increase the purchase possibility, which in turn reduces marketing and advertising budgets. Based on neuromarketing, which measures how we choose [2][3], other sciences such as neuropolitics, neurodesign, and neuroeconomics have emerged [4].

Neuro-leadership

Neuroleadership is the application of neuroscience and biosignals in leadership development, management training, change management, training, and consulting [1][24]. Neuroleadership focuses on different aspects of an organization/industry and its employees and how the brain and fundamental neural processing affects the relationship between managers and employees. Its main purpose is to apply neuroscience to increase management ability, change management, creativity and increase work engagement [21]. The general framework of Neuroleadership includes 4 areas of decision making, problem solving, emotion regulation, cooperation and facilitation of change [24].

Brain-computer interface

There are two general types of Brain Computer Interface. The Active Brain-Computer Interface (Active BCI) method helps people with mobility, vision, or hearing impairments use brain biosignals to control artificial limbs with a computer, as if they are controlled by their own brain. The ultimate goal is to connect the brain to the computer to optimize functionality[23]. In the Passive Brain Computer Interface (Passive BCI), various biosignals are recorded and analyzed in real time. The result of this analysis is an instant or real-time understanding of people’s emotional states that can be used in operational environments, team resource evaluation, training and evaluation of expertise, and video games to improve performance[12].

Reducing human errors

Biosignals are used to continuously monitor attention, concentration, fatigue, and the cognitive load in sensitive jobs such as drivers, watchtower officers, and employees in the control department of various industries. Based on the information achieved, it is possible to warn a person when he is tired, or based on the brain fatigue level, information can be presented in the form of visual, auditory or combined [5][9][10].

Internet of Things

Biosignals can be used as part of the Internet of Things (IoT) management, i.e., communication with computers, digital and mechanical devices, humans and animals as distinct members of the network. For example, based on biosignal information, the ambient temperature, the room light or the way the ventilation system works could be adjusted [8][17].

Performance enhancement

By recording biosignals and providing feedback based on their changes, we can help improve memory, attention and learning, as well as reduce stress and increase mood. These methods are commonly known as Neurofeedback and Biofeedback, and in addition to optimizing the performance of ordinary people, it also has a great effect on improving the performance of athletes, managers and artists [18][31].