Annex 1: Definitions
they could be categorized as data (biosignal) scientists, and especially neuroscience and cognitive researchers, companies in the field of medical and brain signal analysis, governmental institutions and in general any individual or public organization working in the field of data analytics. These scientists and engineers steer the development of the application and products in therapeutic and biosignals.
are laboratories or science labs which are equipped with accurate appliances. Their equipment is highly standard compliance. Neuroscience experts are working in Hub centers and of one their routines could be biosignal data collection. From the token economical perspective, Mages are in charge of biosignal data collection as well as transferring their payable shares (by Wage token) to the Hubs after Mage has acknowledged the acceptance of an suitable sample of data. Therefore, Hubs consider themselves obliged to collect and transmit the applicable data samples for the Mage with highest quality and accuracy. Hub role could be considered as indicator and supplier of the biosignal data.
could be any individual who agrees to share her biosignals data sample on the Zarela platform. By biosignal data transmission, Angel will give permission to the Mage to construct the research based on the acquired biosignal data samples offered by the Angel. Angel will study the Z-paper submitted by the Mage on the Zarela’s platform and then will consult and visit the Hub center. Preparation of the Angel at the first stage will be providing detailed clarification of the purpose and goals of the research by the Hub to the Angel. Secondly, the number of data collection trials (sessions) required by the Angel to attend in the Hub center to fulfil the data collection accuracy. Finally, set up appointments at the Hub center for the Angel. The preparation emergence is necessary for a precise and error-free data collection process performed by the Hub considering the requirements of the Mage which mentioned in the Z-paper. Similarly, Angel act as provider of biosignal data. Once the biosignal file is received and confirmed by the Mage, Zarela’s reward token (BioBit token) will be available to Hub and/or Angel who has proved the biosignal contribution and paid the Ethereum transaction fee. The reward will be appended to the reward distribution queue that is managed by Zarela’s smart contract to be distributed at the end of each Zarela’s day. Additionally, after the confirmation of the biosignal file acceptance by the Mage, the Wage token amount will be dedicated and available to the Angel.
Zarela has been developed on the Ethereum blockchain. Since Zarela’s network operation is based on the Proof-of-Contribution , every transaction made on the Ethereum blockchain through the Zarela’s smart contract will be considered as a contribution. A successful contribution on Zarela consists of a request (by the Mage) and an acknowledgement by the participant (the Angel who gives the biosignal data sample). This contribution will trigger a transaction on the underlying Ethereum network that requires a fee payable by the Angel or the Hub to the Ethereum network. In exchange, Zarela’s smart contract distributes a specific amount of reward (that is described in the Token Economy section below) from its reward pool to the Angel or Hub which had compensated the Ethereum’s network transaction fee.
A Metaverse is a network of 3D virtual worlds focused on social connection. In futurism and science fiction, it is often described as a hypothetical iteration of the Internet as a single, universal virtual world that is facilitated by the use of virtual and augmented reality headsets. The term metaverse has its origins in the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash as a portmanteau of meta and universe. Various metaverses have been developed for popular use such as virtual world platforms like Second Life. Some metaverse iterations involve integration between virtual and physical spaces and virtual economies, often including a significant interest in advancing virtual reality technology.
Zarela’s Pod is a product of Zarela and it is a compound device that is composed of several inter-connected components. Each component is an independent non-invasive Brain’s signal measurement. Zarela’s Pod simply could be considered as a composite Brain’s signal recorder with high mobility.
As it is mentioned earlier in the Abstract section, we have implemented the Bioverse based on the contribute-to earn concept. To elaborate more, contribute-to-earn is a bridge between Proof-of-Contribution of the Zarela's Smart Contract and the Bioverse itself. It can provide capability to the Bioverse ’s users to perform contribution on the Bioverse and earn BioBit in exchange. For instance, When a contribute-to-earn fulfilled by a user on the Bioverse , the ZSC will be informed about it and regards it as a contribution which is eligible to receive reward from the Zarela’s reward pool. The details of the contribute-to-earn functionalities and possible contributions is available in the Bioverse document.
Zarela’s utility token is Biobit. Zarela’s platform has been developed on the Ethereum network that is based on the ERC-20 standard. Likewise Ethereum, Biobit is complied with the ERC-20 standard.
85 percent of the total available Biobits are safeguarded by the Zarela’s smart contract. Theses tokens will be released to the contributor either which are Angels or Hubs. The formula provided in the Token economy section describes the process of distributing reward pool tokens.
It is the amount of Biobits which have been released from the reward pool and transferred to each contributor’s wallet address. It is calculated at the end of each Zarela’s day and appended to the smart contract’s payment queue. This reward is payable to all contributors who has successfully responded to a request (and paid the Ethereum transaction fee) that had been placed by any Mage on the Zarela’s application platform.
It is the amount of Biobits secured in the Mage’s wallet prior to any contribution. Mage is enforced to secure the promised amount of BioBit (explained in the Z-paper while Mage has submitted her biosignal file request) into her Wallet to be distributed to the contributors. It is vital to be mentioned that Wage token will be distributed to the Hub or/and Angel when Mage confirmed the correctness of the received file from the Angel or/and Hub.Wage is an unavoidable BioBit transfer in the form of a transaction after confirmation of the received signal by the Mage.
It is like a container of the daily released Biobits from the reward pool. Bank holds the daily released tokens plus the remaining tokens which are not distributed from the previous days, tokens that are not burnt and today’s tokens awaiting to be distributed. In a simpler form, Bank’s balance reveals the total number of Biobits that can be distributed among Zarela’s contributors on a daily basis.
It is the research proposal submitted by the Mage and explains about the purpose of the research in a simple and understandable language. Z-paper contains social media information (like LinkedIn page) of the research institution. It indicates which research methodology has been chosen as well as the research outcomes and future benefits for the community. Every Mage is required to submit the Z-paper along with the biosignal request on the Zarela’s platform. Thus, Z-paper could be reviewed by the Angel/s who are interested in biosignal contribution. It needs to be mentioned the Z-paper must follow a standard described at the Zarela’s app.
It is a dashboard available at the address dashboard.zarela.io and contains up-to-dated information about the Zarela’s network difficulty, Zarela Day, Reward Payment Day and statistical data about the number of daily contributors and also number of available tokens on a daily basis. On the Zarela’s dashboard and under the “explorer” tab, all the information about the past transaction can be explored by the user.
This network is active on the Ethereum Ropsten test-net. All events, functions, and activities on this network are exactly synced with the Zarela main-net. The purpose of developing a test-net is to familiarize and educate the users about Zarela’s main-net. The Biobit and Ethereum tokens in this network are available only for test purposes and have no financial value. It’s accessible through testnet.zarela.io.
This is the maximum transaction fee paid by a contributor to pay the reward of the previous contributors that are recorded in the form of an Ethereum transaction. This number is in the range of [1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 128] and is displayed daily through Zarela’s Dashboard.The calculating formula for network difficulty is provided in the section Zarela network difficulty calculation.
Zarela’s smart contract could be used by different applications as an embedded process in the format of request response. To distinguish between different application’s transaction made to the Zarela’s platform, Mage will need to check with Zarela’s GitHub page to pick up a unique and available business ID (a unique number between 2 to 1 million is available) for her business application. This unique ID needs to be sent to the smart contract from any exterior application. The method of defining a new ID for a new business application is managed by the Zarela’s smart contract and details of the methods have been explained in Zarela’s GitHub page.
Zarela’s platform provide support for different category of requests to be submitted on the platform (biosignal request is only a single category that needs a biosignal file to be submitted. But, there are other type of files associated to a specific topic that could be submitted on the Zarela as well). Categorizing the requests on Zarela helps users find the desired requests easily. Selecting research categories by Mages is required while submitting any requests.
An external decentralized file system used for the peer-to-peer file distribution. InterPlanetary File System makes it possible to download a file from many locations that aren’t managed by one organization. Below are some features of InterPlanetary File System files system:
- Supports a resilient internet. If someone attacks Wikipedia’s web servers or an engineer at Wikipedia makes a big mistake that causes their servers to catch fire, you can still get the same webpages from somewhere else.
- Makes it harder to censor content. Because files on InterPlanetary File System can come from many places, it’s harder for anyone (whether they’re states, corporations, or someone else) to block things. We hope InterPlanetary File System can help provide ways to circumvent actions like these when they happen.
- Can speed up the web when you’re far away or disconnected. If you can retrieve a file from someone nearby instead of hundreds or thousands of miles away, you can often get it faster. This is especially valuable if your community is networked locally but doesn’t have a good connection to the wider internet. (Well-funded organizations with technical expertise do this today by using multiple data centers or CDNs — content distribution networks (opens new window). InterPlanetary File System hopes to make this possible for everyone.)
This file system is used in Zarela to securely store the files that Angels send in response to requests.
Every (at least) 24 hours starting from the deployment of Zarela’s main-net is called a Zarela Day, and the payment queue and the rewards are automatically calculated accordingly. Every Zarela Day starts with a participation transaction on Zarela’s network, and the information is displayed on Zarela’s Dashboard. The end of every Zarela’s day is specified by the smart contract when a newly submitted transaction realizes that more than 24 hours have been passed from the initiation time of the request submission. Then, smart contract proceeds to calculate and pay the daily rewards.
The rewards are computed per Zarela’s day. Also, the time in which very first contribution registered (and first transaction block added) on the Zarela’s platform will be considered as Zarela’s zero hour. The total number of daily tokens are those tokens which have been released on each Zarela’s day, plus the number of tokens left over from the previous days. After the rewards have been distributed, the token’s surplus will be added to the next day’s Bank balance. When Hub and Angel respond to a request, at the time of contribution initiation, they will mark the public key which paid the transaction fee. Thus, their submitted wallet addresses will be rewarded at the end of each Zarela’s day with the value up to 50 Biobits in the first halving and the remaining reward tokens will be transferred to the accumulated balance of tokens on the next day Bank balance.
In Zarela’s platform, halving will occur every 590 Zarela’s day. Halving stages will have an impact on the distributable rewards in such a way that, after each halving stage, the maximum reward tokens will be divided in two. In contrast, maximum reward at the commencement of the Zarela’s network initiation will be 50 Biobits and after first having stage it will be 25 Biobits. Worthy to be mentioned that, maximum number of tokens released on each day also are limited to 14400 tokens.